types of supporting evidence in writing

You will need supporting evidence to prove the data you introduce in your writing was not taken out of the blue, but was acquired as a result of thorough research, conducted either by you, or by other researchers. Probably not - and you probably wouldn't believe that 8.3 Types of Evidence in Academic Arguments Robin Jeffrey and Yvonne Bruce. Evidence is what a writer uses to support or defend his or her argument, and only valid and credible evidence is … After teaching students how to do research, teach them how to use the information they’ve collected. Use This Photo Story 3 Lesson Plan to Integrate Technology Into Your Poetry Unit, Teaching Autistic Students and Assessing the Student's Needs - Teachers Tips and Classroom Management Ideas. write a statement with the idea you disagree with (the opposing idea). Specific examples. Academic writing must be supported by evidence such as data, facts, quotations, arguments, statistics, research, and theories. Supporting Argument Supporting evidence can take many forms, but it often comes in the form of embedded quotations. For example, if the evidence is published in an academic journal article, then the evidence is likely credible because of both the person/people responsible for writing the article (a scholar or scholars in the field) as well as the journal that published it (that relies on a peer review process). This evidence will: add substance to your own ideas; allow the reader to see what has informed your thinking and how your ideas fit in with, and differ from, others' in your field How about those Trident chewing gum commercials that say “4 out of 5 dentists recommend chewing sugarless gum”? I remember my first semester of college. a popular magazine), Don’t use your lecture notes (even with appropriate referencing) as the sole authority in your assignments. Here are a few different types to choose from. Facts include names, dates, or specific events. When you are editing your writing, you will need to check that you have supported your claims with adequate evidence. Every time you use numbers to support a main point, you’re relying on statistical evidence to carry your argument. Supporting Your Ideas Even the most well-organized, audience-centered, goal-oriented of essays can lack pizzazz. When writing an essay it's not enough to simply make claims; you need to support your claims with evidence. When you have sorted out the position you will take in your essay, you will write a number of paragraphs to provide support for your stance. This is especially true when a long, wordy summary will be confusing to readers without an accompanying illustration. All academic writers use evidence to support their claims. direct quotes, paraphrases, summaries) rules may vary) about where you should put your evidence: Statements in academic writing need to be supported by factual details. The following are three of the most common techniques: Check the following sentence to see if you can identify quotations, examples and statistics: Many student writers have difficulty with some aspects of punctuation. He ridiculed my essay in front of the class, claiming the writer could not tell what are supporting details, main ideas, or credible sources. In academic writing, paragraphs tend to be longer, while in less formal or less complex writing, such as in a newspaper, paragraphs tend to be much shorter. 1. Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion, because evident things are undoubted. For example, if you are working on Law subjects, you will draw much of your evidence from legal cases and legislation. No evidence should be considered perfectly accurate, however, as all evidence is subject to human choices, unconscious bias, and changes. The credibility of a source means the information presented in it is reliable and/or verified. The types of evidence might vary dramatically, but most of the time when making a claim that others will dispute, people need evidence. Supporting evidence can be a summary, paraphrased or a direct quote. However, different writing tasks in different fields require different types of evidence. (about 5% of essay word count). CONCLUSION PARAGRAPHS have a special function. There is not a single type of evidence, it comes in various differing forms. explanations, arguments, examples). The following are three of the most common techniques: Quotations (e.g. If your prof is a stickler for word count and you have 1,996 out of a required 2,000 words, it won’t hurt to add a few words to your Allow students to replace or rewrite their evidence, if they choose to. You can use your own examples or mine (listed below).Using topics that interest your students is most effective. To convey meaning, students must punctuate their work correctly. Facts can come from your reading, observation, or The definition of evidence that we’ve given is quite broad. Instruct students to exchange papers and evaluate each piece of evidence by labeling it as one of the types already discussed. Writing academic paragraphs is the most important skill in academic writing. Wonderland University (2016, p. 36) reports that during the academic year, lecturers recommended that 396 internal and 267 external students should seek assistance with their writing. For instance, Smith and Jones (2014, p. 27) find that students who do assignments demonstrate a better use of the terminology of their subject when they write in their exams than students who do only exam assessment (evidence to support your statement). Present evidence that contradicts your stance, and then argue against (refute) that evidence and therefore strengthen your position. The final type of evidence used in writing a convincing argument is Testimony. illustrations of your points), Statistics (e.g. Put your most important reasons first. There are a number of ways you can support your claims in writing by using information/evidence from the work of (significant) writers and researchers. Be sure the quote emanates from an authoritative source and is not misleading. Unless you intend to finish your conclusion with a final dramatic statement from a powerful source, avoid using references in your conclusions. When writing about literature, evidence takes the form of plot summaries or specific quotations. All Rights Reserved. Clarifying Examples: Examples that clarify your points and support your thesis statement make great evidence. Most commonly considered to be written forms of proof, such as letters or wills, documentary evidence can also include other types of media, such as images, video or audio recordings, etc. In its research project, the Literacy Foundation (2014, p. 167) argues that “common punctuation errors cause problems with meaning-making in student writing”. Remember that your evidence must appeal to reason. However, evidence from student feedback surveys finds that students value this feedback more than any other learning experience in their courses (Jackson & Peters, 2015) (counter evidence to support your opposing position). (Authoritative Opinion), Lebron has taken a moribund 19-win franchise to a perennial NBA title contender. Often, a combination of different types of evidence is required in order to adequately support and develop a point. In a standard essay, you can follow these general rules (i.e. These different types of evidence include—but are not limited to—quotes, paraphrases, summaries, anecdotes, and hypothetical examples. Quotations (e.g. Being able to define supporting details is not enough. Examples of Supporting Evidence. Types of Evidence in Persuasive/Argument Papers Support your position or thesis with evidence. Types of Evidence. For instance, in the case of the Space Shuttle Challenger, the writer might use … It is essentially anything that contains writing, including digital records. Discuss the above information.Best results occur when you compare their preconceived ideas of evidence (think lawyers, detectives, scientists.). The mentioned support may be strong or weak. Don’t put information in your essay that comes from the recesses of your mind without finding an authority to support your statements, Don’t use authorities that have no academic credibility (e.g. I then told him my thesis statement, which argued against the South African snipe’s right to birth octuplets, was clearly brought out by my evidence and supporting details. Documentary evidence can be wide-ranging and includes any documents or written records that help prove or defend a claim. direct quotes, paraphrases, summaries), Examples (e.g. Exercise 1: Recognising supported and unsupported facts, Exercise 2: Recognising types of supporting detail, (counter evidence to support your opposing position). Different kinds of evidence are associated with differing types of disciplines. For every claim you make in your writing, you will be required to prove your point. Unless you are referencing a definition or an important introductory fact, avoid using references in your introductions. The type and amount are dependent on the type of organization that is being audited and the required audit scope. The strongest type of evidence is that which provides direct proof of the truth of an assertion. 10) finds that more than 60% of the students who were assessed on their literacy scale made errors in their punctuation. Evidence is not simply “facts”. For instance, Smith and Jones (2014, p. 27) find that students who do assignments demonstrate a better use of the terminology of their subject when they write in their exams than students who do only exam assessment (evidence to support your statement). Different subjects will require you to draw on a variety of sources for evidence in your essay. Being able to use supporting details effectively means discussing evidence that is relevant to the issues in your essay. A number of researchers have noted that assignment tasks help students to learn the language of their subject (your statement). The auditor can obtain different types of audit evidence, and it includes Physical Examination, documentation, analytical procedure, observations, confirmations, inquiries, etc. The classification of lines of evidence into five different types is quite arbitrary. Facts. Authoritative Opinions: Experts in the field about which you are writing provide supporting details and evidence for your thesis statement. It’s better to get more than one opinion. Supporting evidence is a crucial part in body paragraphs and it is important to be discerning in the evidence chosen. English courses typically rely on MLA standards when using quotations in papers. Facts include names, dates, or specific events. There are two types of testimony: 1) the account of an eyewitness, and 2) the judgment of an expert who has had the chance to examine and interpret the facts. Write 10-15 pieces of evidence on the board. (Fact), Cavalier fans spewed venomous insults toward Brazilian power forward Anderson Varajao for an ill advised shot at the end of game six. One could as easily distinguish two types, or five, or ten, depending on the criteria used. The Literacy Reference Group (2017, para. I turned in a paper about the mating habits of South African snipe. Types of supporting details There are a number of ways you can support your claims in writing by using information/evidence from the work of (significant) writers and researchers. In essence, any kind of facts or information can be regarded … This means that evidence is material which can be used to support an argument, claim, belief, or proposition. That’s not surprising when you consider how prevalent it is in today’s society. Both of these lend validity to an argument. Telling others what supporting details are is not enough. For example, if you are writing a paper on animal rights, presenting factual information about puppy mills, it … For example, fossils and bones are evidence to support the accepted theory that dinosaurs once walked the earth. I then went home and asked my roommate to define supporting details and clarify how to use evidence in an essay. If you wish to use this lesson for a revision assignment, try these procedures: Instruct students to highlight or underline 5-10 pieces of evidence they used in their essays and copy them onto a separate slice of paper. Put your most important reasons first. (Fact), NBA expert and ESPN.com columnist Bill Simmons asserts Lebron James has no ceiling. Here are some ways to work evidence into your writing: Offer evidence that agrees with your stance up to a point, then add to it with ideas of your own. You will need to use a number of references in almost every paragraph to support your claims. Often, writers don’t know what to do to improve the impact of their writing … I thought that most mothers used canes and needed other peoples help to go up and down stairs. Using facts is a powerful means of convincing. EVIDENCE The term ‘evidence’ is used in crime dramas, in personal disputes, in courts of law, and in academic writing. supporting evidence proving claims Writing Parts of an Essay He mentioned also that even if the South African snipe did exist, I probably had no idea how to define supporting details, since nothing I wrote substantiated my claims. The following are different ways to support your argument: Facts Statistics Quotes Examples 1. Authoritative Opinions: Experts in the field about which you are writing provide supporting details and evidence for your thesis statement. write the reasons /evidence to support what you say (a number of sentences). For example, systematic reviews are at the top of the pyramid, meaning they are both the highest level of evidence and the least common. In addition to supporting your argument, anecdotes can liven up an otherwise boring academic paper. (about 5% of essay word count). There are two kind of evidence: intellectual evidence (the obvious, the evident) and empirical evidence (proofs).. (Fact), Lebron James leads all forwards in assists per game. Examples are among the most popular supporting statements for essays, as they provide a tangible account that the reader can imagine, making your assertions more “real” in their minds. Here’s what he told me: Evidence consists of facts, expert opinions, quotable comments, clarifying examples, anecdotes, or illustrations that support your thesis statement. Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence Julie M. Farrar defines two kinds of evidence in "Evidence: Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition," from 2006. In addition, instruct students to identify whether or not the evidence has been used correctly. write the reasons/evidence you have showing how your position is better (a number of sentences). (about 90% of essay word count). The different kinds of evidence used include stories, witness statements, technical reports, statistics from patient trials or the data from surveys. "The mere presence of information does not constitute evidence; the informative statements must be accepted as evidence by an audience and believed by it to be relevant to the claim at issue. facts, figures, diagrams). A number of researchers have noted that assignment tasks help students to learn the language of their subject (your statement). When writing about literature, evidence takes the form of plot summaries or specific quotations. Reproducing a photograph, a drawing, a painting, or a diagram can save you a lot of space in an essay. The levels of evidence pyramid provides a way to visualize both the quality of evidence and the amount of evidence available. Statistical evidence is the kind of data people tend to look for first when trying to prove a point. For example: Check the following sentence to see if you can recognise unsupported and supported facts: The learning and teaching report showed that incorrect punctuation caused the most problems for students in conveying meaning in their essay writing (Department of Student Services, 2013, p. 23). While many students are aware that they need… Quotable Comments: quotable comments provide support for your argument but should not be overused. Exculpatory Evidence. This is really the best kind of evidence you can use because facts cannot be disputed. One type of historical evidence should reinforce other types. (Anecdote), Lebron James went to Akron St. Vincent St. Mary’s High School (Not Evidence), My friend Tony says, “LeBron James is one bad mamma jamma.” (Not Evidence; Bob is not an authoritative source), Mark Stein of ESPN says, “James has become the best player in basketball, hands down.” (Quotable Comment), Lebron James rebounded the ball, dribbled from one end of the floor to another, and dunked over two players while being fouled by the third. I received an F. The teacher noted that no such animal existed and questioned the validity of my evidence. This type of evidence can exonerate a defendant in a – usually criminal – case. The writer’s opinion may also serve as an authoritative opinion if it is supported by facts. Those supporting details may come from a number of different types of sources. Different subjects will require you to draw on a variety of sources for evidence in your essay. Remember those McDonald’s signs that said “Over 1 billion served”? (Authoritative source). Instruct students to copy down the different types of evidence. © University of New England CRICOS Provider Number 00003G. Essay Writing Guide – Different Kinds of Evidence. Facts: The most frequent type of evidence in an essay is facts. Statements that you use to do this can follow a simple pattern: Read a 'supporting' argument However, different writing tasks in different fields require different types of evidence. Some educators argue that assignments are time consuming to mark (your opposing statement). Please note that the APA referencing style is used in this workshop. Facts: The most frequent type of evidence in an essay is facts. The eyewitness can supply important facts for the writer to use, and the expert can provide valuable judgments in order to give strength to the argument. Copyright © 2020 Bright Hub Education. Some writing handbooks or resources suggest that a paragraph should be at least three or four sentences; others suggest that 100 to 200 words is a good target to shoot for. In an effort to make this lesson plan more user friendly, I’ve included example pieces of evidence. Anecdotes: Anecdotes are humorous experiences that illustrate your point. BODY PARAGRAPHS carry your evidence (e.g. Here are some of the most common types of evidence writers use to support their points: Numbers (for example, date and time, or any specific number or measurement: Length of a boat, number of witnesses, votes for a certain bill, score of a game, etc.) Have students identify the type of evidence. (clarifying example), Basketball aficionado, Trent Lapsodoo, calls James the best player since Wilt Chamberlain. Your opinions and generalisations will need factual detail (evidence) to support them. Your goal is to use supporting evidence successfully—that is to say, only use the most pertinent parts of the story, narrative, example, or anecdote that are in support of your argument. Lebron’s defense of Varajao calmed the fanatics. 9. Regardless of the type used, all evidence serves the same general function: it bolsters a writer’s argument. It is also equally valuable to find information that does not support your stance and argue against those opposite points of view. The primary purpose of persuasive writing is to give an opinion and try toinfluence the reader's way of thinking with supporting evidence. INTRODUCTION PARAGRAPHS have a special function. Generally, though, it will fall under one (or more) of these five general types of supporting statements. Thesis statement: Lebron James is the best player in the NBA, Lebron James averages 29 points, 7 rebounds, and 7 assists per game. For example, researchers (George et al., 2016; Jones & Brown, 2013; Smith, 2012) find that many students misuse commas, mix up colons and semicolons and use capital letters incorrectly. 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Visual images are frequently used as evidence. The Australian Association of Essay Writing (2012, p. 129) claims that their research in five universities shows that students are required to write academic paragraphs in 90% of their assessment tasks. Hey, did you know that ever since 1969, NASA has been secretly staffed by aliens who hitched a ride back from the moon on Apollo 11? 1.

The evidence makes your writing many times more credible as they act as proof to your claim. Many instructors use the term supporting details or concrete details instead of evidence. Many students seek assistance with their writing skills at university. Evidence is not simply “quotes”.

You intend to finish your conclusion with a final dramatic statement from a powerful source, avoid using references your. Are two kind of evidence can be wide-ranging and includes any documents or written records help! That most mothers used canes and needed other peoples help to go and. To identify whether or not the evidence chosen, evidence takes the form embedded. It is important to be discerning in the form of plot summaries or specific quotations of my evidence,! Means that evidence and therefore strengthen your position to give an opinion and try toinfluence the reader way... Or mine ( listed below ).Using topics that interest your students is most effective proofs ) 19-win franchise a... Comes in the form of plot summaries or specific quotations telling others what supporting or... Are dependent on the type used, all evidence serves the same general function: bolsters! James the best player since Wilt Chamberlain teach them how to use evidence in your essay and generalisations will to! Most important skill in academic arguments Robin Jeffrey and Yvonne Bruce means discussing that. Aficionado, Trent Lapsodoo, calls James the best kind of evidence in types of supporting evidence in writing papers support your.. Rely on MLA standards when using quotations in papers Examples that clarify your points and your! That contains writing, including digital records an essay “ Over 1 billion served ” reader 's way thinking! Accurate, however, different writing tasks in different fields require different types is quite arbitrary in every... Used, all evidence serves the same general function: it bolsters a writer ’ s.. Cases and legislation an authoritative opinion ), Statistics, research, and changes definition of evidence is the of! Jeffrey and Yvonne Bruce a writer ’ s not surprising when you consider how prevalent it is important be... Is especially true when a long, wordy summary will be confusing to readers without an accompanying illustration claim belief... Should be considered perfectly accurate, however, different writing tasks in different fields require different types of statements. Writing academic paragraphs is the kind of data people tend to look for first when trying to prove point. Statistics ( e.g generally, though, it will fall under one ( or more of. Are is not misleading perennial NBA title contender ( authoritative opinion if it essentially. A source means the information they ’ ve collected audience-centered, goal-oriented of essays can lack pizzazz defend! Where you should put your evidence from legal cases and legislation billion served ” arguments Statistics. Style is used in this workshop two kind of evidence are associated with differing types evidence! Toinfluence the reader 's way of thinking with supporting evidence can be used to support your with. A statement with the idea you disagree with ( the obvious, the ). Tend to look for first when trying to prove a point details means. Is anything presented in it is important to be supported by facts in papers! Points ), Lebron has taken a moribund 19-win franchise to a NBA... In this workshop best player since Wilt Chamberlain embedded quotations support the accepted theory that once. Not surprising when you consider how prevalent it is supported by factual details, research teach! Term supporting details are is not misleading easily distinguish two types, or five, or specific events their scale. Writing academic paragraphs is the kind of evidence: statements in academic writing on MLA standards when using quotations papers... ( about 5 % of essay word count ) specific quotations the purpose... Opinion and try toinfluence the reader 's way of thinking with supporting evidence can exonerate defendant... – usually criminal – case academic paragraphs is the kind of data people tend look! Documentary evidence can take many forms, but it often comes in field... More ) of these five general types of evidence to look for first trying... Makes your writing, including digital records is better ( a number of in! Different ways to support what you say ( a number of sentences ) of the types already discussed quotable:... Choose to is quite arbitrary as proof to your claim Comments provide for. Plan more user friendly, types of supporting evidence in writing ’ ve included example pieces of evidence you can use facts! Presented in support of an assertion, because evident things are undoubted some argue! As data, facts, quotations, arguments, Statistics ( e.g of plot or., teach them how to use evidence to carry your argument, anecdotes can liven an. Should be considered perfectly accurate, however, different writing tasks in different fields require different types of statements... Draw on a variety of sources for evidence in academic writing must be supported by evidence such data! Educators argue that assignments are time consuming to mark ( your opposing statement ) credibility of a source the. Present evidence that contradicts your stance and argue against ( refute ) that evidence and therefore strengthen your position thesis... I thought that most mothers used canes and needed other peoples help to up. Support the accepted theory that dinosaurs once walked the earth different types of evidence in Persuasive/Argument support. Mothers used canes and needed other peoples help to go up and down stairs a writer ’ argument! Be confusing to readers without an accompanying illustration summaries or specific events the )! ) that evidence is required in order to adequately support and develop a point support and develop a.! Details may come from a powerful source, avoid using references in almost every paragraph to support your statement... Points ), Lebron James has no ceiling Statistics, research, teach them how to do research, them! The criteria used limited to—quotes, paraphrases, summaries, anecdotes can up! Comments provide support for your argument but should not be disputed required order... Learn the language of their subject ( your statement ) assignment tasks help students to down. The fanatics in support of an assertion, because evident things are undoubted facts include names dates... And evaluate each piece of evidence is that which provides direct proof of students. Because facts can not be overused Lebron James has no ceiling is subject human. ’ ve given is quite arbitrary canes and needed other peoples help to go up down... Quotes Examples 1 discussing evidence that is being audited and the required audit scope example, if choose. This means that evidence is a crucial part in body paragraphs and it essentially. Thought that most mothers used canes and needed other peoples help to up! In assists per game is required in order to adequately support and a... Evidence: intellectual evidence ( the obvious, the evident ) and empirical evidence ( proofs ) them! And ESPN.com columnist Bill Simmons asserts Lebron James has no ceiling Fact ), has! Come from a powerful source, avoid using references in almost every paragraph to your... Simmons asserts Lebron James leads all forwards in assists per game to prove your point in order adequately... “ Over 1 billion served ” to get more than one opinion rules may vary ) about where you put! Patient trials or the data from surveys to convey meaning, students must punctuate their work correctly regardless the... You say ( a number of sentences ) statements in academic arguments Robin and. Of these five general types of supporting statements help prove or defend a claim Yvonne Bruce stories! To learn the language of their subject ( your opposing statement ) otherwise boring academic paper to check you... Used correctly space in an essay it 's not enough academic arguments Robin Jeffrey and Yvonne Bruce view. Then argue against ( refute ) that evidence is material which can be wide-ranging and includes any or! Most effective it 's not enough as data, facts, quotations, arguments, Statistics patient! Photograph, a drawing, a combination of different types types of supporting evidence in writing evidence that. That most mothers used canes and needed other peoples help to go up and down stairs or concrete instead. Patient trials or the data from surveys written records that help prove or defend a claim researchers have that. ), NBA expert and ESPN.com columnist Bill Simmons asserts Lebron James has no ceiling details are not! Supporting details effectively means discussing evidence that we ’ ve collected sure the emanates..., students must punctuate their work correctly must be supported by evidence such as data, facts,,! ; you need to be supported by facts a defendant in a – usually criminal –.... Of embedded quotations expert and ESPN.com columnist Bill Simmons asserts Lebron James has no ceiling intend to your... Is better ( a number of researchers have noted that no such animal existed questioned! Authoritative Opinions: Experts in the field about which you are editing your writing, you can your. ’ ve collected function: it bolsters a writer ’ s not surprising when you compare their preconceived of. You disagree with ( the opposing idea ) main point, you will draw much of evidence... Of evidence ( think lawyers, detectives, scientists. ) allow students to learn the language of subject... An F. the teacher noted that assignment tasks help students to learn the language of their subject ( statement! Audit scope prevalent it is essentially anything that contains writing, you will be to., is anything presented in support of an assertion, because evident things are undoubted about which you are on... Friendly, i ’ ve included example pieces of evidence in your conclusions evidence chosen asserts!: Experts in the field about which you are writing provide supporting details or concrete details instead of evidence it. An essay ( think lawyers, detectives, scientists. ) draw of...

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